1851 treaty of Fort Laramie

The 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie is rightfully considered to be inevitable eventuality, to stop the bloody skirmishes, which had been common occurrences between the European Americans and the natives. The white settlers wanted to migrate towards the west as they were lured by the gold rush but, for doing this they had to pass through the Indian territories. Considering the perils in this quest and the morbid eventualities the government of the United States of America struck a deal with the Indian representatives.

1851 treaty of fort laramie

A treaty comprising terms of peace was signed at Fort Laramie. Located in the Indian territory, the place created a niche for itself in the History as it was signed by D.D. Mitchell, the superintendent of Indian affairs and Thomas Fitzpatrick, an Indian agent. Both the delegates had been appointed by the government of the United States of America and the representatives of the Indian territories respectively. He jointly represented the Indian nations comprising the regions lying towards the south of the Mississippi River, Northern Texas, New Mexico, Sioux, Cheyennes, Arrapahoes, Crows, Assinaboines, Arrickaras and Gros-Ventre Mandans.

The 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie has five Articles and each clearly specifies the provisions of the treaty:

Article 1: This Article of 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie testifies the fact that all have parties have willingly signed the treaty and that hereby, they would abstain from all kinds of possible hostilities. Also, they would endeavor to promote good faith, amity and mutual understandings among the different groups involved in this treaty. Also, all the groups involved in this pact would ensure that the peace would be a lasting one.

Article 2: The aforementioned groups would also acknowledge the rights of the government of the United States of America to construct road, railways and forts within the territories of the Indian tribes.

Article 3: According to the terms and condition of the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie the U.S government is also obliged to take over the responsibility of protecting the Indian tribes within their territories against external insurgence.  The government would also ensure that the rights and dignity of the tribes are well protected after the ratification of the treaty.

Article 4: On the other hand, the Indian tribes are obliged to maintain amicable relations with the European American settlers. They are expected to guarantee safe passage to the settlers across their lands. In case, any kind of wrong doing is perpetrated by the Indians upon the Europeans, they would be responsible for the necessary restitutions.

Article 5: According to the terms and conditions of the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie the Indians are bound to acknowledge and respect the boundaries of all the parties involved. Also, they are expected to remain within their own precincts and thereby, would not trespass into the other parties’ territories by any means.

Article 6: All the Indian tribes would have to choose the representatives of their own territories. The elected chiefs are expected to maintain decorum during their tenure in office. They would be conducting all kinds of business on behalf of their people.

Article 7: The Government of the United States of America has to pay $ 50,000 per annum to the Indian tribes for a period of 10 years.

Article 8: The Indian parties involved in this treaty would not violate any terms and conditions. Otherwise, the U.S government would withhold the payment of the annuity sum at its own discretion.

1851 Treaty