It has been observed by the historians worldwide that for centuries, the European migrants had been crossing the Atlantic like swarms of bees, in order to discover a new world, believed to be full of untold promises. However, nothing comes without a price and the new immigrants too, confront the hostile local Indian tribes. In a bid to move westwards, the European Americans has to indulge in a number of bloody skirmishes with the natives.
All the same, the California gold rush accentuated the traffic towards the west and more and more miners started crossing the Great Plains on Santa Fe Trails and Oregon. Eventually, in order to guarantee safe passage for the miners and immigrants towards California, the Government of the United States of America was finally compelled to sign the Treaty of 1851 with Native Americans of the plains.
This epoch making step was taken by the U.S. government, so that the new immigrants enjoyed a safe passage through Arkansas and Missouri and they did not get victimized the wrath of the natives. This memorable treaty of 1851 was signed by the bureaucrats representing the government of the United States and the representatives hailing from Arikara, Hidatsa, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Sioux, crow and Mandan. According to the terms and conditions of this treaty the Indian tribes retained their claims over their territories. The European immigrants were promised a safe passage to California without indulging in ugly spats with the tribes.
The natives also let the U.S. government build forts and roads along their territories. In return to the safe route guaranteed to the settlers, the government also promised to a hefty annuity of $ 50,000 for a period of 50 years. As soon as the Treaty of 1851 was signed, the U.S government did not waste further time in erecting and fortifying its trading posts. This quick move was made by the government to buttress its position in Sioux, the most strategic land. Sioux, as you are well aware of, comprise almost 5 percent of the entire American continent. It is, but an open secret that the U.S government coveted that particular land for its own people. As a matter of fact, Sioux covers some of the iconic states of the present day U.S, such as North and South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska and Montana.
However, the U.S Senate changed its stance over this issue and went back on its own promises in 1852. To the utter dismay of the native Indian representatives from the various regions, it made a suave move by adding Article 5 to the existing treaty. According to the newly ratified treaty the U.S government decreased the payment of annuity to the people of Sioux from 50 to 10 years. It is also believed that several tribes never even received the payments which the government had promised them in terms of commodities.
However, there is no gainsaying that the Treaty of 1851 ensured a brief period of peace. This served advantageous to the miners and settlers and the traffic towards California further increased.